Sansa Technology QA Tutorial - Online/Classroom

Quality Assurance Tutorials

This page contains tutorials on various QA Topics.


Software Development Process
What is SDLC?

SDLC defines System Development Life Cycle.
It has 4 phases:

  1. Planning
  2. Requirement Gathering
  3. Design
  4. Implementation

What is Agile Development Methodology?

Agile Methodology is a type of SDLC. This is based on close collaboration of implementation teams. It also enforces iterative and incremental development.

What is Verification?

Verification ensures the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer; it typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements and specifications; this can be done with checklists, issues lists, and walkthroughs and inspection meetings.

What is Validation?

Validation ensures that functionality, as defined in requirements, is the intended behavior of the product, validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are completed.

What is Walk-through?

A walk-through is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes.

What is Inspection?

An inspection is a formal meeting, more formalized than a walk-through and typically consists of 3-10 people including a moderator, reader (the author of whatever is being reviewed) and a recorder (to make notes in the document). The subject of the inspection is typically a document, such as a requirements document or a test plan. The purpose of an inspection is to find problems and see what is missing, not to fix anything. The result of the meeting should be documented in a written report. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the document, before the meeting starts; most problems are found during this preparation. Preparation for inspections is difficult, but is one of the most cost-effective methods of ensuring quality, since bug prevention is more cost effective than bug detection.

What is Quality?

Quality software is software that is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget, meets requirements and expectations and is maintainable. However, quality is a subjective term. Quality depends on who the customer is and their overall influence in the scheme of things. Customers of a software development project include end-users, customer acceptance test engineers, testers, customer contract officers, customer management, the development organization's management, test engineers, testers, salespeople, software engineers, stockholders and accountants. Each type of customer will have his or her own slant on quality. The accounting department might define quality in terms of profits, while an end-user might define quality as user friendly and bug free.

What is Good Code?

A good code is code that works, is free of bugs and is readable and maintainable. Organizations usually have coding standards all developers should adhere to, but every programmer and software engineer has different ideas about what is best and what are too many or too few rules. We need to keep in mind that excessive use of rules can stifle both productivity and creativity. Peer reviews and code analysis tools can be used to check for problems and enforce standards.

What is Good Design?

Design could mean too many things, but often refers to functional design or internal design. Good functional design is indicated by software functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear, understandable, easily modifiable and maintainable; is robust with sufficient error handling and status logging capability; and works correctly when implemented. .

What is Software Life Cycle?

Software life cycle begins when a software product is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. It includes phases like initial concept, requirements analysis, functional design, internal design, documentation planning, test planning, coding, document preparation, integration, testing, maintenance, updates, re-testing and phase-out.

Why are so many software Bugs?

Generally speaking, there are bugs in Software because of unclear requirements, software complexity, programming errors, changes in requirements, errors made in bug tracking, time pressure, poorly documented code and/or bugs in tools used in software development.
There are unclear software requirements because there is miscommunication as to what the software should or shouldn't do.
Software complexity. All of the followings contribute to the exponential growth in software and system complexity: Windows interfaces, client-server and distributed applications, data communications, enormous relational databases and the sheer size of applications.
Programming errors occur because programmers and software engineers, like everyone else, can make mistakes.
As to changing requirements, in some fast-changing business environments, continuously modified requirements are a fact of life. Sometimes customers do not understand the effects of changes, or understand them but request them anyway. And the changes require redesign of the software, rescheduling of resources and some of the work already completed have to be redone or discarded and hardware requirements can be effected, too.
Bug tracking can result in errors because the complexity of keeping track of changes can result in errors, too.
Time pressures can cause problems, because scheduling of software projects is not easy and it often requires a lot of guesswork and when deadlines loom and the crunch comes, mistakes will be made.
Code documentation is tough to maintain and it is also tough to modify code that is poorly documented. The result is bugs. Sometimes there is no incentive for programmers and software engineers to document their code and write clearly documented, understandable code. Sometimes developers get kudos for quickly turning out code or programmers and software engineers feel they have job security if everyone can understand the code they write, or they believe if the code was hard to write, it should be hard to read.
Software development tools, including visual tools, class libraries, compilers, scripting tools, can introduce their own bugs. Other times the tools are poorly documented, which can create additional bugs.

How do you introduce a new Software QA Process?

It depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. For large organizations with high-risk projects, a serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. For medium size organizations with lower risk projects, management and organizational buy-in and a slower, step-by- step process is required. Generally speaking, QA processes should be balanced with productivity, in order to keep any bureaucracy from getting out of hand. For smaller groups or projects, an ad-hoc process is more appropriate. A lot depends on team leads and managers, feedback to developers and good communication is essential among customers, managers, developers, test engineers and testers. Regardless the size of the company, the greatest value for effort is in managing requirement processes, where the goal is requirements that are clear, complete and testable.

Give me five common problems occur during software development?

Poorly written requirements, unrealistic schedules, inadequate testing, adding new features after development is underway and poor communication.

  1. Requirements are poorly written when requirements are unclear, incomplete, too general, or not testable; therefore there will be problems.
  2. The schedule is unrealistic if too much work is crammed in too little time.
  3. Software testing is inadequate if none knows whether or not the software is any good until customers complain or the system crashes.
  4. Its extremely common that new features are added after development is underway.
  5. Miscommunication either means the developers don't know what is needed, or customers have unrealistic expectations and therefore problems are guaranteed.

Give me five solutions to problems that occur during software development?

Solid requirements, realistic schedules, adequate testing, firm requirements and good communication.

  1. Ensure the requirements are solid, clear, complete, detailed, cohesive, attainable and testable. All players should agree to requirements. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements.
  2. Have schedules that are realistic. Allow adequate time for planning,design, testing, bug fixing, re-testing, changes and documentation. Personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out.
  3. Do testing that is adequate. Start testing early on, re-test after fixes or changes, and plan for sufficient time for both testing and bug fixing.
  4. Avoid new features. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible. Be prepared to defend design against changes and additions, once development has begun and be prepared to explain consequences. If changes are necessary, ensure they're adequately reflected in related schedule changes. Use prototypes early on so customers' expectations are clarified and customers can see what to expect; this will minimize changes later on.
  5. Communicate. Require walk-through and inspections when appropriate make extensive use of e-mail, networked bug-tracking tools, tools of change management. Ensure documentation is available and up-to-date. Use documentation that is electronic, not paper. Promote teamwork and cooperation.

Do Automated testing tools make testing easier?

Yes and no. For larger projects, or ongoing long-term projects, they can be valuable. But for small projects, the time needed to learn and implement them is usually not worthwhile. A common type of automated tool is the record/playback type. For example, a test engineer clicks through all combinations of menu choices, dialog box choices, buttons, etc. in a GUI and has an automated testing tool record and log the results. The recording is typically in the form of text, based on a scripting language that the testing tool can interpret. If a change is made (e.g. new buttons are added, or some underlying code in the application is changed), the application is then re-tested by just playing back the recorded actions and compared to the logged results in order to check effects of the change. One problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the product being tested, the recordings have to be changed so often that it becomes a very time-consuming task to continuously update the scripts. Another problem with such tools is the interpretation of the results (screens, data, logs, etc.) that can be a time-consuming task.

What makes a good test engineer?

Rob Davis is a good test engineer because he has a "test to break" attitude, Takes the point of view of the customer, has a strong desire for quality, has an attention to detail, He's also Tactful and diplomatic and also has well communication skill, both oral and written. And he has previous software development experience, too. Good test engineers have a "test to break" attitude, they take the point of view of the customer, have a strong desire for quality and an attention to detail. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers and an ability to communicate with both technical and non-technical people. Previous software development experience is also helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software development process gives the test engineer an appreciation for the developers' point of view and reduces the learning curve in automated test tool programming.


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Client server architecture is an architecture of a computer network in which many clients (remote processors) request and receive service from a centralized server (host computer).


3 Tier Architecture

Three-tier is a client-server architecture in which the user interface, functional process logic ("business rules"), computer data storage and data access are developed and maintained as independent modules, most often on separate platforms.


N Tier Architecture

Typically there are five tiers in an e-business application:

  • The Client Tier: This tier essentially hosts the minimal processing that occurs at the point of client access. In many cases, this means it is basically rendering the content for presentation.
  • The Presentation Tier: This tier hosts the processing that adapts the display and interaction for the accessing client device, whether it is a desktop computer, network computer, Internet kiosk, cell phone, PDA or any other device. Typical basic services that run on this tier include Web servers, portal servers, WAP servers, and Web proxy servers.
  • The Business Tier: This tier hosts the logic that embodies the rules of the particular enterprise, irrespective of access device or resource implementation. The primary service that runs on this tier is the J2EE technology-based application server
  • The Integration Tier: This tier hosts the formatting and protocol conversion necessary to communicate with enterprise resources. The services that run on this tier include messaging server (JMS), transaction servers (JTS), CORBA servers (Java IDL), LDAP servers (JNDI), native interfaces (JNI), and others.
  • The Resource Tier: This tier consists of legacy systems or any other back-end or external processing systems. The back-end resources may include database servers and mainframe transactional servers, as well as ERP, SCM, and CRM systems


ManualTesting
Manual Testing

Q: Why is testing needed during the design phase? What should be verified?

A: To ensure:
Design is accurate so that future defects can be prevented.
Verify the following:
Design meets the requirements and is complete
Design takes care of non-functional issues, such as performance, Quality of Service etc



Q: How is testing affected by object-oriented designs?

A: A well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary), white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design.



Q: What is quality assurance?

A: Quality Assurance ensures all parties concerned with the project adhere to the process and procedures, standards and templates and test readiness reviews.



Q: What is black box testing?

A: Black box testing is functional testing, not based on any knowledge of internal software design or code. Black box testing are based on requirements and functionality.



Q: What is white box testing?

A: White box testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. Tests are based on coverage of code statements, branches, paths and conditions.



Q: What is unit testing?

A: Unit testing is the first level of dynamic testing and is first the responsibility of developers and then that of the test engineers.
Unit testing is performed after the expected test results are met or differences are explainable/acceptable.



Q: What is parallel/audit testing?

A: Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs the operations correctly.Q: Process and procedures - why follow them?
A: Detailed and well-written processes and procedures ensure the correct steps are being executed to facilitate a successful completion of a task. They also ensure a process is repeatable.



Q: Standards and templates - what is supposed to be in a document?

A: All documents should be written to a certain standard and template. Standards and templates maintain document uniformity. It also helps in learning where information is located, making it easier for a user to find what they want. Lastly, with standards and templates, information will not be accidentally omitted from a document.




Q: What is functional testing?

A: Functional testing is black-box type of testing geared to functional requirements of an application. Test engineers *should* perform functional testing.



Q: What is usability testing?

A: Usability testing is testing for 'user-friendliness'. Clearly this is subjective and depends on the targeted end-user or customer. User interviews, surveys, video recording of user sessions and other techniques can be used. Programmers and developers are usually not appropriate as usability testers.



Q: What is incremental integration testing?

A: Incremental integration testing is continuous testing of an application as new functionality is recommended. This may require that various aspects of an application's functionality are independent enough to work separately, before all parts of the program are completed, or that test drivers are developed as needed. Incremental testing may be performed by programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.



Q: What is integration testing?

A: Upon completion of unit testing, integration testing begins. Integration testing is black box testing. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure distinct components of the application still work in accordance to customer requirements.
Test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. This activity is carried out by the test team.
Integration testing is considered complete, when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input.



Q: What is system testing?

A: System testing is black box testing, performed by the Test Team, and at the start of the system testing the complete system is configured in a controlled environment. The purpose of system testing is to validate an application's accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed. System testing simulates real life scenarios that occur in a "simulated real life" test environment and test all functions of the system that are required in real life.
System testing is deemed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable or acceptable, based on client input.
Upon completion of integration testing, system testing is started. Before system testing, all unit and integration test results are reviewed by Software QA to ensure all problems have been resolved. For a higher level of testing it is important to understand unresolved problems that originate at unit and integration test levels.



Q: What is end-to-end testing?

A: Similar to system testing, the *macro* end of the test scale is testing a complete application in a situation that mimics real world use, such as interacting with a database, using network communication, or interacting with other hardware, application, or system.



Q: What is regression testing?

A: The objective of regression testing is to ensure the software remains intact. A baseline set of data and scripts is maintained and executed to verify changes introduced during the release have not "undone" any previous code. Expected results from the baseline are compared to results of the software under test. All discrepancies are highlighted and accounted for, before testing proceeds to the next level.



Q: What is sanity testing?

A: Sanity testing is performed whenever cursory testing is sufficient to prove the application is functioning according to specifications. This level of testing is a subset of regression testing.
It normally includes a set of core tests of basic GUI functionality to demonstrate connectivity to the database, application servers, printers, etc.



Q: What is performance testing?

A: Although performance testing is described as a part of system testing, it can be regarded as a distinct level of testing. Performance testing verifies loads, volumes and response times, as defined by requirements.



Q: What is load testing?

A: Load testing is testing an application under heavy loads, such as the testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system response time will degrade or fail.



Q: What is installation testing?

A: Installation testing is testing full, partial, upgrade, or install/uninstall processes. The installation test for a release is conducted with the objective of demonstrating production readiness.
This test includes the inventory of configuration items, performed by the application's System Administration, the evaluation of data readiness, and dynamic tests focused on basic system functionality. When necessary, a sanity test is performed, following installation testing.



Q: What is security/penetration testing?

A: Security/penetration testing is testing how well the system is protected against unauthorized internal or external access, or willful damage.
This type of testing usually requires sophisticated testing techniques.



Q: What is recovery/error testing?

A: Recovery/error testing is testing how well a system recovers from crashes, hardware failures, or other catastrophic problems.



Q: What is compatibility testing?

A: Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, or network environment.



Q: What is comparison testing?

A: Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to those of competitors' products.



Q: What is acceptance testing?

A: Acceptance testing is black box testing that gives the client/customer/project manager the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to the system being released to production.
The acceptance test is the responsibility of the client/customer or project manager, however, it is conducted with the full support of the project team. The test team also works with the client/customer/project manager to develop the acceptance criteria.



Q: What is alpha testing?

A: Alpha testing is testing of an application when development is nearing completion. Minor design changes can still be made as a result of alpha testing. Alpha testing is typically performed by a group that is independent of the design team, but still within the company, e.g. in-house software test engineers, or software QA engineers.



Q: What is beta testing?

A: Beta testing is testing an application when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before the final release. Beta testing is typically performed by end-users or others, not programmers, software engineers, or test engineers.



Q: What is a Test/QA Team Lead?

A: The Test/QA Team Lead coordinates the testing activity, communicates testing status to management and manages the test team.



Q: What testing roles are standard on most testing projects?

A: Depending on the organization, the following roles are more or less standard on most testing projects: Testers, Test Engineers, Test/QA Team Lead, Test/QA Manager, System Administrator, Database Administrator, Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager.
Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of Technical Analyst, Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager.



Q: What is a Test Engineer?

A: We, test engineers, are engineers who specialize in testing. We, test engineers, create test cases, procedures, scripts and generate data. We execute test procedures and scripts, analyze standards of measurements, evaluate results of system/integration/regression testing. We also...
Speed up the work of the development staff;
Reduce your organization's risk of legal liability;
Give you the evidence that your software is correct and operates properly;
Improve problem tracking and reporting;
Maximize the value of your software;
Maximize the value of the devices that use it;
Assure the successful launch of your product by discovering bugs and design flaws, before users get discouraged, before shareholders lose their cool and before employees get bogged down;
Help the work of your development staff, so the development team can devote its time to build up your product;
Promote continual improvement;
Provide documentation required by FDA, FAA, other regulatory agencies and your customers;
Save money by discovering defects 'early' in the design process, before failures occur in production, or in the field;
Save the reputation of your company by discovering bugs and design flaws; before bugs and design flaws damage the reputation of your company.



Q: What is a Test Build Manager?

A: Test Build Managers deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware.
Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Test Build Manager.



Q: What is a System Administrator?

A: Test Build Managers, System Administrators, Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware.
Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a System Administrator.



Q: What is a Database Administrator?

A: Test Build Managers, System Administrators and Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment, install the application's software and apply software patches, to both the application and the operating system, set-up, maintain and back up test environment hardware. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Database Administrator.



Q: What is a Technical Analyst?

A: Technical Analysts perform test assessments and validate system/functional test requirements. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Technical Analyst.



Q: What is a Test Configuration Manager?

A: Test Configuration Managers maintain test environments, scripts, software and test data. Depending on the project, one person may wear more than one hat. For instance, Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Test Configuration Manager.



Q: What is a test schedule?

A: The test schedule is a schedule that identifies all tasks required for a successful testing effort, a schedule of all test activities and resource requirements.



Q: What is software testing methodology?

A: One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of...
Creating a test strategy;
Creating a test plan/design; and
Executing tests.



Q: What is the general testing process?

A: The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes the creation of test cases), creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests.



Q: How do you create a test plan/design?

A: Test scenarios and/or cases are prepared by reviewing functional requirements of the release and preparing logical groups of functions that can be further broken into test procedures. Test procedures define test conditions, data to be used for testing and expected results, including database updates, file outputs, report results. Generally speaking...
Test cases and scenarios are designed to represent both typical and unusual situations that may occur in the application.
Test engineers define unit test requirements and unit test cases. Test engineers also execute unit test cases.
It is the test team that, with assistance of developers and clients, develops test cases and scenarios for integration and system testing.
Test scenarios are executed through the use of test procedures or scripts.
Test procedures or scripts define a series of steps necessary to perform one or more test scenarios.
Test procedures or scripts include the specific data that will be used for testing the process or transaction.
Test procedures or scripts may cover multiple test scenarios.
Test scripts are mapped back to the requirements and traceability matrices are used to ensure each test is within scope.
Test data is captured and base lined, prior to testing. This data serves as the foundation for unit and system testing and used to exercise system functionality in a controlled environment.
Some output data is also base-lined for future comparison. Base-lined data is used to support future application maintenance via regression testing.
A pretest meeting is held to assess the readiness of the application and the environment and data to be tested. A test readiness document is created to indicate the status of the entrance criteria of the release.
Inputs for this process: Approved Test Strategy Document.
Test tools, or automated test tools, if applicable.
Previously developed scripts, if applicable.
Test documentation problems uncovered as a result of testing.
A good understanding of software complexity and module path coverage, derived from general and detailed design documents, e.g. software design document, source code, and software complexity data.
Outputs for this process:
Approved documents of test scenarios, test cases, test conditions, and test data.
Reports of software design issues, given to software developers for correction.



Q: How do you execute tests?

A: Execution of tests is completed by following the test documents in a methodical manner. As each test procedure is performed, an entry is recorded in a test execution log to note the execution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncovered any defects. Checkpoint meetings are held throughout the execution phase. Checkpoint meetings are held daily, if required, to address and discuss testing issues, status and activities.
The output from the execution of test procedures is known as test results. Test results are evaluated by test engineers to determine whether the expected results have been obtained. All discrepancies/anomalies are logged and discussed with the software team lead, hardware test lead, programmers, software engineers and documented for further investigation and resolution. Every company has a different process for logging and reporting bugs/defects uncovered during testing.
A pass/fail criteria is used to determine the severity of a problem, and results are recorded in a test summary report. The severity of a problem, found during system testing, is defined in accordance to the customer's risk assessment and recorded in their selected tracking tool.
Proposed fixes are delivered to the testing environment, based on the severity of the problem. Fixes are regression tested and flawless fixes are migrated to a new baseline. Following completion of the test, members of the test team prepare a summary report. The summary report is reviewed by the Project Manager, Software QA Manager and/or Test Team Lead.
After a particular level of testing has been certified, it is the responsibility of the Configuration Manager to coordinate the migration of the release software components to the next test level, as documented in the Configuration Management Plan. The software is only migrated to the production environment after the Project Manager's formal acceptance.
The test team reviews test document problems identified during testing, and update documents where appropriate.
Inputs for this process:
Approved test documents, e.g. Test Plan, Test Cases, Test Procedures.
Test tools, including automated test tools, if applicable.
Developed scripts.
Changes to the design, i.e. Change Request Documents.
Test data.
Availability of the test team and project team.
General and Detailed Design Documents, i.e. Requirements Document, Software Design Document.
A software that has been migrated to the test environment, i.e. unit tested code, via the Configuration/Build Manager.
Test Readiness Document.
Document Updates.
Outputs for this process:
Log and summary of the test results. Usually this is part of the Test Report. This needs to be approved and signed-off with revised testing deliverables.
Changes to the code, also known as test fixes.
Test document problems uncovered as a result of testing. Examples are Requirements document and Design Document problems.
Reports on software design issues, given to software developers for correction. Examples are bug reports on code issues.
Formal record of test incidents, usually part of problem tracking.
Base-lined package, also known as tested source and object code, ready for migration to the next level.



Q: How do you create a test strategy?

A: The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing, as required. The test team analyzes the requirements, writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. The test plan may include test cases, conditions, the test environment, a list of related tasks, pass/fail criteria and risk assessment.
Inputs for this process:
A description of the required hardware and software components, including test tools. This information comes from the test environment, including test tool data.
A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test and schedule constraints. This information comes from man-hours and schedules.
Testing methodology. This is based on known standards.
Functional and technical requirements of the application. This information comes from requirements, change request, technical and functional design documents.
Requirements that the system can not provide, e.g. system limitations.
Outputs for this process:
An approved and signed off test strategy document, test plan, including test cases.
Testing issues requiring resolution. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the project management level.

 




TestReportingTools
TestReportingTools.php content
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HPMercuryQuickTestProfessional
What are the Features & Benefits of Quick Test Pro (QTP 8.0)?

Operates stand-alone, or integrated into Mercury Business Process Testing and Mercury Quality Center. Introduces next-generation zero-configuration Keyword Driven testing technology in Quick Test Professional 8.0 allowing for fast test creation, easier maintenance, and more powerful data-driving capability. Identifies objects with Unique Smart Object Recognition, even if they change from build to build, enabling reliable unattended script execution. Collapses test documentation and test creation to a single step with Auto-documentation technology. Enables thorough validation of applications through a full complement of checkpoints.


How to handle the exceptions using recovery scenario manager in QTP?

There are 4 trigger events during which a recovery scenario should be activated. A pop up window appears in an opened application during the test run: A property of an object changes its state or value, A step in the test does not run successfully, An open application fails during the test run, These triggers are considered as exceptions.You can instruct QTP to recover unexpected events or errors that occurred in your testing environment during test run. Recovery scenario manager provides a wizard that guides you through the defining recovery scenario. Recovery scenario has three steps: 1. Triggered Events 2. Recovery steps 3. Post Recovery Test-Run


What is the use of Text output value in QTP?

Output values enable to view the values that the application talks during run time. When parameterized, the values change for each iteration. Thus by creating output values, we can capture the values that the application takes for each run and output them to the data table.


How to use the Object spy in QTP 8.0 version?

There are two ways to Spy the objects in QTP: 1) Thru file toolbar, In the File Toolbar click on the last toolbar button (an icon showing a person with hat). 2) True Object repository Dialog, In Object repository dialog click on the button object spy. In the Object spy Dialog click on the button showing hand symbol. The pointer now changes in to a hand symbol and we have to point out the object to spy the state of the object if at all the object is not visible. or window is minimized then, hold the Ctrl button and activate the required window to and release the Ctrl button.


How Does Run time data (Parameterization) is handled in QTP?

You can then enter test data into the Data Table, an integrated spreadsheet with the full functionality of Excel, to manipulate data sets and create multiple test iterations, without programming, to expand test case coverage. Data can be typed in or imported from databases, spreadsheets, or text files.


What is keyword view and Expert view in QTP?

Quick Test’s Keyword Driven approach, test automation experts have full access to the underlying test and object properties, via an integrated scripting and debugging environment that is round-trip synchronized with the Keyword View. Advanced testers can view and edit their tests in the Expert View, which reveals the underlying industry-standard VBScript that Quick Test Professional automatically generates. Any changes made in the Expert View are automatically synchronized with the Keyword View.


Explain about the Test Fusion Report of QTP?

Once a tester has run a test, a Test Fusion report displays all aspects of the test run: a high-level results overview, an expandable Tree View of the test specifying exactly where application failures occurred, the test data used, application screen shots for every step that highlight any discrepancies, and detailed explanations of each checkpoint pass and failure. By combining Test Fusion reports with Quick Test Professional, you can share reports across an entire QA and development team.


Which environments does QTP support?

Quick Test Professional supports functional testing of all enterprise environments, including Windows, Web,..NET, Java/J2EE, SAP, Siebel, Oracle, PeopleSoft, Visual Basic, ActiveX, mainframe terminal emulators, and Web services.


What is QTP?

Quick Test is a graphical interface record-playback automation tool. It is able to work with any web, java or windows client application. Quick Test enables you to test standard web objects and ActiveX controls. In addition to these environments, Quick Test Professional also enables you to test Java applets and applications and multimedia objects on Applications as well as standard Windows applications, Visual Basic 6 applications and.NET framework applications


Explain QTP Testing process?

Quick Test testing process consists of 6 main phases:

Create your test plan
Prior to automating there should be a detailed description of the test including the exact steps to follow, data to be input, and all items to be verified by the test. The verification information should include both data validations and existence or state verifications of objects in the application.
Recording a session on your application
As you navigate through your application, Quick Test graphically displays each step you perform in the form of a collapsible icon-based test tree. A step is any user action that causes or makes a change in your site, such as clicking a link or image, or entering data in a form.
Enhancing your test
Inserting checkpoints into your test lets you search for a specific value of a page, object or text string, which helps you identify whether or not your application is functioning correctly. NOTE: Checkpoints can be added to a test as you record it or after the fact via the Active Screen. It is much easier and faster to add the checkpoints during the recording process. Broadening the scope of your test by replacing fixed values with parameters lets you check how your application performs the same operations with multiple sets of data. Adding logic and conditional statements to your test enables you to add sophisticated checks to your test.
Debugging your test
If changes were made to the script, you need to debug it to check that it operates smoothly and without interruption.
Running your test on a new version of your application
You run a test to check the behavior of your application. While running, Quick Test connects to your application and performs each step in your test.
Analyzing the test results
You examine the test results to pinpoint defects in your application.
Reporting defects
As you encounter failures in the application when analyzing test results, you will create defect reports in Defect Reporting Tool.


Explain the QTP Tool interface?

It contains the following key elements: Title bar, displaying the name of the currently open test, Menu bar, displaying menus of Quick Test commands, File toolbar, containing buttons to assist you in managing tests, Test toolbar, containing buttons used while creating and maintaining tests, Debug toolbar, containing buttons used while debugging tests. Note: The Debug toolbar is not displayed when you open Quick Test for the first time. You can display the Debug toolbar by choosing View — Toolbars — Debug. Action toolbar, containing buttons and a list of actions, enabling you to view the details of an individual action or the entire test flow. Note: The Action toolbar is not displayed when you open Quick Test for the first time. You can display the Action toolbar by choosing View — Toolbars — Action. If you insert a reusable or external action in a test, the Action toolbar is displayed automatically. Test pane, containing two tabs to view your test-the Tree View and the Expert View ,Test Details pane, containing the Active Screen. Data Table, containing two tabs, Global and Action, to assist you in parameterizing your test. Debug Viewer pane, containing three tabs to assist you in debugging your test-Watch Expressions, Variables, and Command. (The Debug Viewer pane can be opened only when a test run pauses at a breakpoint.) Status bar, displaying the status of the test


How does QTP recognize Objects in AUT?

Quick Test stores the definitions for application objects in a file called the Object Repository. As you record your test, Quick Test will add an entry for each item you interact with. Each Object Repository entry will be identified by a logical name (determined automatically by Quick Test), and will contain a set of properties (type, name, etc) that uniquely identify each object. Each line in the Quick Test script will contain a reference to the object that you interacted with, a call to the appropriate method (set, click, check) and any parameters for that method (such as the value for a call to the set method). The references to objects in the script will all be identified by the logical name, rather than any physical, descriptive properties.


What are the types of Object Repositories in QTP?

Quick Test has two types of object repositories for storing object information: shared object repositories and action object repositories. You can choose which type of object repository you want to use as the default type for new tests, and you can change the default as necessary for each new test. The object repository per-action mode is the default setting. In this mode, Quick Test automatically creates an object repository file for each action in your test so that you can create and run tests without creating, choosing, or modifying object repository files. However, if you do modify values in an action object repository, your changes do not have any effect on other actions. Therefore, if the same test object exists in more than one action and you modify an object’s property values in one action, you may need to make the same change in every action (and any test) containing the object.


Explain the check points in QTP?

A checkpoint verifies that expected information is displayed in an Application while the test is running. You can add eight types of checkpoints to your test for standard web objects using QTP. A page checkpoint checks the characteristics of an Application. A text checkpoint checks that a text string is displayed in the appropriate place on an Application. An object checkpoint (Standard) checks the values of an object on an Application. An image checkpoint checks the values of an image on an Application. A table checkpoint checks information within a table on a Application. An Accessibilityy checkpoint checks the web page for Section 508 compliance. An XML checkpoint checks the contents of individual XML data files or XML documents that are part of your Web application. A database checkpoint checks the contents of databases accessed by your web site


In how many ways we can add check points to an application using QTP?

We can add checkpoints while recording the application or we can add after recording is completed using Active screen (Note : To perform the second one The Active screen must be enabled while recording).


How does QTP identify objects in the application?

QTP identifies the object in the application by Logical Name and Class.


What is Parameterizing Tests?

When you test your application, you may want to check how it performs the same operations with multiple sets of data. For example, suppose you want to check how your application responds to ten separate sets of data. You could record ten separate tests, each with its own set of data. Alternatively, you can create a parameterized test that runs ten times: each time the test runs, it uses a different set of data.


What is test object model in QTP?

The test object model is a large set of object types or classes that Quick Test uses to represent the objects in your application. Each test object class has a list of properties that can uniquely identify objects of that class and a set of relevant methods that Quick Test can record for it. A test object is an object that Quick Test creates in the test or component to represent the actual object in your application. Quick Test stores information about the object that will help it identify and check the object during the run session.


What is Object Spy in QTP?

Using the Object Spy, you can view the properties of any object in an open application. You use the Object Spy pointer to point to an object. The Object Spy displays the selected object’s hierarchy tree and its properties and values in the Properties tab of the Object Spy dialog box.


What is the Diff between Image check-point and Bit map Check point?

Image checkpoints enable you to check the properties of a Web image. You can check an area of a Web page or application as a bitmap. While creating a test or component, you specify the area you want to check by selecting an object. You can check an entire object or any area within an object. Quick Test captures the specified object as a bitmap, and inserts a checkpoint in the test or component. You can also choose to save only the selected area of the object with your test or component in order to save disk Space. For example, suppose you have a Web site that can display a map of a city the user specifies. The map has control keys for zooming. You can record the new map that is displayed after one click on the control key that zooms in the map. Using the bitmap checkpoint, you can check that the map zooms in correctly. You can create bitmap checkpoints for all supported testing environments (as long as the appropriate add-ins are loaded). Note: The results of bitmap checkpoints may be affected by factors such as operating system, screen resolution, and color settings.


How many ways we can parameterize data in QTP?

There are four types of parameters: Test, action or component parameters enable you to use values passed from your test or component, or values from other actions in your test. Data Table parameters enable you to create a data-driven test (or action) that runs several times using the data you supply. In each repetition, or iteration, Quick Test uses a different value from the Data Table. Environment variable parameters enable you to use variable values from other sources during the run session. These may be values you supply, or values that Quick Test generates for you based on conditions and options you choose. Random number parameters enable you to insert random numbers as values in your test or component. For example, to check how your application handles small and large ticket orders, you can have Quick Test generate a random number and insert it in a number of tickets edit field.


How do u do batch testing in WR & is it possible to do in QTP, if so explain?

Batch Testing in WR is nothing but running the whole test set by selecting Run Test set from the Execution Grid. The same is possible with QTP also. If our test cases are automated then by selecting Run Test set all the test scripts can be executed. In this process the Scripts get executed one by one by keeping all the remaining scripts in Waiting mode.


If I give some thousand tests to execute in 2 days what do u do?

Adhoc testing is done. It Covers the least basic functionalities to verify that the system is working fine.


What does it mean when a check point is in red color? what do u do?

A red color indicates failure. Here we analyze the cause for failure whether it is a Script Issue or Environment Issue or a Application issue.


What is Object Spy in QTP?

Using the Object Spy, you can view the properties of any object in an open application. You use the Object Spy pointer to point to an object. The Object Spy displays the selected object’s hierarchy tree and its properties and values in the Properties tab of the Object Spy dialog box.


What is the file extension of the code file & object repository file in QTP?

Code file extension is.vbs and object repository is.tsr


Explain the concept of object repository & how QTP recognizes objects?

Object Repository: displays a tree of all objects in the current component or in the current action or entire test (depending on the object repository mode you selected). We can view or modify the test object description of any test object in the repository or to add new objects to the repository. Quicktest learns the default property values and determines in which test object class it fits. If it is not enough it adds assistive properties, one by one to the description until it has compiled the unique description. If no assistive properties are available, then it adds a special Ordinal identifier such as objects location on the page or in the source code.


What are the properties you would use for identifying a browser & page when using descriptive programming?

Name would be another property apart from title that we can use.


Give me an example where you have used a COM interface in your QTP project?

com interface appears in the scenario of front end and back end. for eg:if you r using oracle as back end and front end as VB or any language then for better compatibility we will go for an interface. of which COM will be one among those interfaces. Create object creates handle to the instance of the specified object so that we program can use the methods on the specified object. It is used for implementing Automation(as defined by Microsoft).


Explain in brief about the QTP Automation Object Model.

Essentially all configuration and run functionality provided via the Quick Test interface is in some way represented in the Quick Test automation object model via objects, methods, and properties. Although a one-on-one comparison cannot always be made, most dialog boxes in Quick Test have a corresponding automation object, most options in dialog boxes can be set and/or retrieved using the corresponding object property, and most menu commands and other operations have corresponding automation methods. You can use the objects, methods, and properties exposed by the Quick Test automation object model, along with standard programming elements such as loops and conditional statements to design your program.



HPMercuryLoadRunner

LoadTesting and HP Mercury LoadRunner


1. What is load testing?
    Load testing is to test that if the application works fine with the loads that result from large number of simultaneous users, transactions and to determine weather it can handle peak usage periods.

2. What is Performance testing?
    Timing for both read and update transactions should be gathered to determine whether system functions are being performed in an acceptable timeframe. This should be done standalone and then in a multi user environment to determine the effect of multiple transactions on the timing of a single transaction.

3.Did you use LoadRunner? What version?
    Yes. version 7.2

4. Explain the Load testing process?

    Step 1:Planning the test. Here, we develop a clearly defined test plan to ensure the test scenarios we develop will accomplish load-testing objectives.
    Step 2:Creating Vusers. Here, we create Vuser scripts that contain tasks performed by each Vuser, tasks performed by Vusers as a whole, and tasks measured as transactions.
    Step 3: Creating the scenario. A scenario describes the events that occur during a testing session. It includes a list of machines, scripts, and Vusers that run during the scenario. We create scenarios using LoadRunner Controller. We can create manual scenarios as well as goal-oriented scenarios. In manual scenarios, we define the number of Vusers, the load generator machines, and percentage of Vusers to be assigned to each script. For web tests, we may create a goal-oriented scenario where we define the goal that our test has to achieve. LoadRunner automatically builds a scenario for us.
    Step 4: Running the scenario. We emulate load on the server by instructing multiple Vusers to perform tasks simultaneously. Before the testing, we set the scenario configuration and scheduling. We can run the entire scenario, Vuser groups, or individual Vusers.
    Step 5: Monitoring the scenario. We monitor scenario execution using the LoadRunner online runtime, transaction, system resource, Web resource, Web server resource, Web application server resource, database server resource, network delay, streaming media resource, firewall server resource, ERP server resource, and Java performance monitors.
    Step 6: Analyzing test results. During scenario execution, LoadRunner records the performance of the application under different loads. We use LoadRunners graphs and reports to analyze the applications performance.

5.When do you do load and performance Testing?
    We perform load testing once we are done with interface (GUI) testing. Modern system architectures are large and complex.Whereas single user testing primarily on functionality and user interface of a system component, application testing focuses on performance and reliability of an entire system. For example, a typical application-testing scenario might depict 1000 users logging in simultaneously to a system. This gives rise to issues such as what is the response time of the system, does it crash,will it go with different software applications and platforms, can it hold so many hundreds and thousands of users, etc. This is when we set do load and performance testing.

6.What are the components of LoadRunner?
    The components of LoadRunner are The Virtual User Generator, Controller, and the Agent process, LoadRunner Analysis and Monitoring, LoadRunner Books Online.

7.What Component of LoadRunner would you use to record a Script?
    The Virtual User Generator (VuGen) component is used to record a script. It enables you to develop Vuser scripts for a variety of application types and communication protocols.

8.What Component of LoadRunner would you use to play Back the script in multi user mode?
    The Controller component is used to playback the script in multi-user mode. This is done during a scenario run where a vuser script is executed by a number of vusers in a group.

9.What is a rendezvous point?
    You insert rendezvous points into Vuser scripts to emulate heavy user load on the server. Rendezvous points instruct Vusers to wait during test execution for multiple Vusers to arrive at a certain point, in order that they may simultaneously perform a task. For example, to emulate peak load on the bank server, you can insert a rendezvous point instructing 100 Vusers to deposit cash into their accounts at the same time.

10. What is a scenario?
    A scenario defines the events that occur during each testing session. For example, a scenario defines and controls the number of users to emulate, the actions to be performed, and the machines on which the virtual users run their emulations.

11.Explain the recording mode for web Vuser script?
    We use VuGen to develop a Vuser script by recording a user performing typical business processes on a client application. VuGen creates the script by recording the activity between the client and the server. For example, in web based applications, VuGen monitors the client end of the database and traces all the requests sent to, and received from, the database server. We use VuGen to: Monitor the communication between the application and the server; Generate the required function calls; and Insert the generated function calls into a Vuser script.

12.Why do you create parameters?
    Parameters are like script variables. They are used to vary input to the server and to emulate real users. Different sets of data are sent to the server each time the script is run. Better simulate the usage model for more accurate testing from the Controller; one script can emulate many different users on the system.

13.What is correlation?Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation?
    Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

14.How do you find out where correlation is required? Give few examples from your projects?
    Two ways: First we can scan for correlations, and see the list of values which can be correlated. From this we can pick a value to be correlated.Secondly, we can record two scripts and compare them. We can look up the difference file to see for the values which needed to be correlated. In my project, there was a unique id developed for each customer, it was nothing but Insurance Number, it was generated automatically and it was sequential and this value was unique. I had to correlate this value, in order to avoid errors while running my script. I did using scan for correlation.

15.Where do you set automatic correlation options?
    Automatic correlation from web point of view can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

16.What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web Vuser script?
    Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.

17.When do you disable log in Virtual User Generator, When do you choose standard and extended logs?
    Once we debug our script and verify that it is functional, we can enable logging for errors only. When we add a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. Standard Log Option: When you select Standard log, it creates a standard log of functions and messages sent during script execution to use for debugging. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled Extended Log Option: Select extended log to create an extended log, including warnings and other messages. Disable this option for large load testing scenarios. When you copy a script to a scenario, logging is automatically disabled. We can specify which additional information should be added to the extended log using the Extended log options.

18.How do you debug a LoadRunner script?
    VuGen contains two options to help debug Vuser scripts-the Run Step by Step command and breakpoints. The Debug settings in the Options dialog box allow us to determine the extent of the trace to be performed during scenario execution. The debug information is written to the Output window. We can manually set the message class within your script using the lr_set_debug_message function. This is useful if we want to receive debug information about a small section of the script only.

19.How do you write user defined functions in LR? Give me few functions you wrote in your previous project?
    Before we create the User Defined functions we need to create the external library (DLL) with the function. We add this library to VuGen bin directory. Once the library is added then we assign user defined function as a parameter. The function should have the following format: __declspec (dllexport) char* (char*, char*)Examples of user defined functions are as follows:GetVersion, GetCurrentTime, GetPltform are some of the user defined functions used in my earlier project.

20.What are the changes you can make in run-time settings?
    The Run Time Settings that we make are:
    a) Pacing - It has iteration count.
    b) Log - Under this we have Disable Logging Standard Log and
    c) Extended Think Time - In think time we have two options like Ignore think time and Replay think time.
    d) General - Under general tab we can set the vusers as process or as multithreading and whether each step as a transaction.

21.Where do you set Iteration for Vuser testing?
    We set Iterations in the Run Time Settings of the VuGen. The navigation for this is Run time settings, Pacing tab, set number of iterations.

22.How do you perform functional testing under load?
    Functionality under load can be tested by running several Vusers concurrently. By increasing the amount of Vusers, we can determine how much load the server can sustain.

23.What is Ramp up? How do you set this?
    This option is used to gradually increase the amount of Vusers/load on the server. An initial value is set and a value to wait between intervals can be specified. To set Ramp Up, go to Scenario Scheduling Options

24.What is the advantage of running the Vuser as thread?
    VuGen provides the facility to use multithreading. This enables more Vusers to be run per generator. If the Vuser is run as a process, the same driver program is loaded into memory for each Vuser, thus taking up a large amount of memory. This limits the number of Vusers that can be run on a single generator. If the Vuser is run as a thread, only one instance of the driver program is loaded into memory for the given number of Vusers (say 100). Each thread shares the memory of the parent driver program, thus enabling more Vusers to be run per generator.

25.If you want to stop the execution of your script on error, how do you do that?
    The lr_abort function aborts the execution of a Vuser script. It instructs the Vuser to stop executing the Actions section, execute the vuser_end section and end the execution. This function is useful when you need to manually abort a script execution as a result of a specific error condition. When you end a script using this function, the Vuser is assigned the status "Stopped". For this to take effect, we have to first uncheck the Continue on error option in Run-Time Settings.

26.What is the relation between Response Time and Throughput?
    The Throughput graph shows the amount of data in bytes that the Vusers received from the server in a second. When we compare this with the transaction response time, we will notice that as throughput decreased, the response time also decreased. Similarly, the peak throughput and highest response time would occur approximately at the same time.

27.Explain the Configuration of your systems?
    The configuration of our systems refers to that of the client machines on which we run the Vusers. The configuration of any client machine includes its hardware settings, memory, operating system, software applications, development tools, etc. This system component configuration should match with the overall system configuration that would include the network infrastructure, the web server, the database server, and any other components that go with this larger system so as to achieve the load testing objectives.

28.How do you identify the performance bottlenecks?
    Performance Bottlenecks can be detected by using monitors.These monitors might be application server monitors, web server monitors, database server monitors and network monitors. They help in finding out the troubled area in our scenario which causes increased response time. The measurements made are usually performance response time, throughput, hits/sec, network delay graphs, etc.

29.If web server, database and Network are all fine where could be the problem?
    The problem could be in the system itself or in the application server or in the code written for the application.

30.How did you find web server related issues?
    Using Web resource monitors we can find the performance of web servers. Using these monitors we can analyze throughput on the web server, number of hits per second that occurred during scenario, the number of http responses per second, the number of downloaded pages per second.

31. How did you find database related issues?
    By running Database monitor and help of Data Resource Graph we can find database related issues. E.g. You can specify the resource you want to measure on before running the controller and than you can see database related issues

32.Explain all the web recording options?
33.What is the difference between Overlay graph and Correlate graph?
    Overlay Graph: It overlay the content of two graphs that shares a common x-axis. Left Y-axis on the merged graph shows the current graphs value & Right Y-axis show the value of Y-axis of the graph that was merged. Correlate Graph: Plot the Y-axis of two graphs against each other. The active graphs Y-axis becomes X-axis of merged graph. Y-axis of the graph that was merged becomes merged graphs Y-axis.

34.How did you plan the Load? What are the Criteria?
    Load test is planned to decide the number of users, what kind of machines we are going to use and from where they are run. It is based on 2 important documents, Task Distribution Diagram and Transaction profile. Task Distribution Diagram gives us the information on number of users for a particular transaction and the time of the load. The peak usage and off-usage are decided from this Diagram. Transaction profile gives us the information about the transactions name and their priority levels with regard to the scenario we are deciding.

35. What does vuser_init action contain?
    Vuser_init action contains procedures to login to a server.

36.What does vuser_end action contain?
    Vuser_end section contains log off procedures.

37.What is think time? How do you change the threshold?
    Think time is the time that a real user waits between actions. Example: When a user receives data from a server, the user may wait several seconds to review the data before responding. This delay is known as the think time. Changing the Threshold: Threshold level is the level below which the recorded think time will be ignored. The default value is five (5) seconds. We can change the think time threshold in the Recording options of the Vugen.

38.What is the difference between standard log and extended log?
    The standard log sends a subset of functions and messages sent during script execution to a log. The subset depends on the Vuser type Extended log sends a detailed script execution messages to the output log. This is mainly used during debugging when we want information about: Parameter substitution. Data returned by the server. Advanced trace.

39.Explain the following functions:
    lr_debug_message :The lr_debug_message function sends a debug message to the output log when the specified message class is set.
    lr_output_message : The lr_output_message function sends notifications to the Controller Output window and the Vuser log file.
    lr_error_message : The lr_error_message function sends an error message to the LoadRunner Output window.
    lrd_stmt : The lrd_stmt function associates a character string (usually a SQL statement) with a cursor. This function sets a SQL statement to be processed.
    lrd_fetch : The lrd_fetch function fetches the next row from the result set.

40.What is Throughput ?
    If the throughput scales upward as time progresses and the number of Vusers increase, this indicates that the bandwidth is sufficient. If the graph were to remain relatively flat as the number of Vusers increased, it would be reasonable to conclude that the bandwidth is constraining the volume of data delivered.

41.Types of Goals in Goal-Oriented Scenario
    Load Runner provides you with five different types of goals in a goal oriented scenario:
  1. The number of concurrent Vusers
  2. The number of hits per second
  3. The number of transactions per second
  4. The number of pages per minute
  5. The transaction response time that you want your scenario

42.Analysis Scenario (Bottlenecks):
    In Running Vuser graph correlated with the response time graph you can see that as the number of Vusers increases, the average response time of the check itinerary transaction very gradually increases. In other words, the average response time steadily increases as the load increases. At 56 Vusers, there is a sudden, sharp increase in the average response time. We say that the test broke the server. That is the mean time before failure (MTBF). The response time clearly began to degrade when there were more than 56 Vusers running simultaneously.

43. What is correlation? Explain the difference between automatic correlation and manual correlation?
    Correlation is used to obtain data which are unique for each run of the script and which are generated by nested queries. Correlation provides the value to avoid errors arising out of duplicate values and also optimizing the code (to avoid nested queries). Automatic correlation is where we set some rules for correlation. It can be application server specific. Here values are replaced by data which are created by these rules. In manual correlation, the value we want to correlate is scanned and create correlation is used to correlate.

44. Where do you set automatic correlation options?
    Automatic correlation from web point of view, can be set in recording options and correlation tab. Here we can enable correlation for the entire script and choose either issue online messages or offline actions, where we can define rules for that correlation. Automatic correlation for database, can be done using show output window and scan for correlation and picking the correlate query tab and choose which query value we want to correlate. If we know the specific value to be correlated, we just do create correlation for the value and specify how the value to be created.

45.What is a function to capture dynamic values in the web vuser script?
    Web_reg_save_param function saves dynamic data information to a parameter.


DatabaseVerificationandValidation
DatabaseVerificationandValidation.php content
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Selenium
What is Selenium?

Selenium is a suite of tools for browser automation. It is composed of "IDE", a recording and playback mechanism, "WebDriver" and "RC" which provide APIs for browser automation in a wide variety of languages, and "Grid", which allows many tests using the APIs to be run in parallel. It works with most browsers, including Firefox from 3.0 up to 7, Internet Explorer 8, Google Chrome, Safari and Opera 11.5

What are the Selenium components?

There are three variants of Selenium, which can be used in isolation or in combination to create complete automation suite for the web applications. Each one has a specific role in aiding the development of web application test automation.

  1. Selenium IDE
  2. Selenium Core
  3. Selenium RC

    1. What is Selenium IDE?

      Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on that records clicks, typing, and other actions to make a test cases, which QA Tester can play back in the Firefox browser or export to Selenium RC. Selenium IDE has the following features: record/play feature, debugging with step-by-step and breakpoints, page abstraction functionality, an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE

      Which are the browsers supported by Selenium IDE?

      Selenium IDE supports only one browser Mozila Firefox.Mozilla Firefox 2.x, Mozilla Firefox 3.x .

      What are the test types supported by Selenium?

      The test types can be supported are:

      1. functional
      2. regression
      3. load testing

        1. What are the capabilities of Selenium IDE?

          1. Selenium IDE is a Firefox add-on
          2. Selenium IDE can support recording the clicks, typing, and other actions to make a test cases
          3. Using Selenium IDE A Tester can play back the test cases in the Firefox browser
          4. Selenium IDE supports exporting the test cases and suites to Selenium RC
          5. Debugging of the test cases with step-by-step can be done
          6. breakpoint insertion is possible
          7. Page abstraction functionality is supported by Selenium IDE
          8. Selenium IDE can supports an extensibility capability allowing the use of add-ons or user extensions that expand the functionality of Selenium IDE

            1. What are the limitations of Selenium IDE?

              Selenium IDE has greate features andis a fruitful and well-organized test automation tool for developing test cases, in the same time Selenium IDE is missing certain vital features of a testing tool:conditional statements, loops,logging functionality, exception handling, reporting functionality, database testing re-execution of failed tests and screenshots taking capability. Selenium IDE doesn`t for IE,Safari and Opera browsers.

              What is Selenium RC (Remote control)tools?

              Selenium Remote Control (RC) is the powerful solution for test cases that need more than simple browser actions and linear execution. Selenium-RC allows the developing of complex test scenarios like reading and writing files, querying a database, and emailing test reports. These tasks can be achieved by tweaking test cases in your preferred programming language.

              What is Selenium Grid?

              Selenium Grid extends Selenium RC to distribute your tests across multiple servers, saving you time by running tests in parallel.

              What programming language is best for writing Selenium tests?

              The web applications may be written in Java, Ruby, PHP, Python or any other web framework. There are certain advantages for using the same language for writing test cases as application under test. For example, if the team already have the experience with Java, QA Tester could always get the piece of advice while mastering Selenium test cases in Java. Sometimes it is better to choose simpler programming language that will ultimately deliver better success. In this case QA testers can adopt easier programming languages, for example Ruby, much faster comparing with Java, and can become become experts as soon as possible

              What is Selenium Core?

              Selenium Core is a test tool for web applications. Selenium Core tests run directly in a browser, just as real users do. They run in Internet Explorer, Mozilla and Firefox on Windows, Linux and Macintosh. It is a simpler form of Selenium, and suitable for non-developers. Browser compatibility testing: To test the application if it works correctly on different browsers and operating systems. The same script can run on any Selenium platform. System functional testing: Create regression tests to verify application functionality and user acceptance.

Table of Content:

Software Development Process
  • What is SDLC?
  • What is Agile Development Methodology?
  • What is Verification?
  • What is Validation?
  • What is Walk-through?
  • What is Inspection?
  • What is Quality?
  • What is Good Code?
  • What is Good Design?
  • What is Software Life Cycle?
  • Why are there so many software bugs?
  • How do you introduce a new Software QA Process?
  • Give me five common problems occur during software development?
  • Give me five solutions to problems that occur during software development?
  • Do Automated testing tools make testing easier?
  • What makes a good test engineer?

  • Software Architecture Models
    Add Table of content here
    Manual Testing
    Add Table of content here
    Test Reporting Tools
    Add Table of content here
    HP Mercury Quick Test Professional

    HP Mercury Load Runner
    Add Table of content here
    Database Verification and Validation
    Add Table of content here
    Selenium
    1. What is Selenium?
    2. What are the Selenium Components?
    3. What is Selenium IDE?
    4. Which are the browsers supported by Selenium IDE?
    5. What are the test types supported by Selenium?
    6. What are the capabilities of Selenium IDE?
    7. What are the limitations of Selenium IDE?
    8. What is Selenium RC (Remote control)tools?
    9. What is Selenium Grid?
    10. What programming language is best for writing Selenium tests?
    11. What is Selenium Core?